Final Fantasy XV

Final Fantasy is a series of games which in the past has made me buy a Playstation 2 and 3, after having played FF7 on the PC. But then I didn’t like FF13 all that much, nor the MMORPG version FF14 (which might have more to do with MMO burnout and the botched first version than the quality of the final second version game). So I didn’t buy a Playstation 4. Nor did I ever buy any version of XBox, which means that I never got to even try Final Fantasy XV. However that is going to change in 2018, because FF15 is coming both to PC and mobile platforms.

If I buy the PC version, I am pretty confident that I will get a pretty much identical game to the console version, with at least equal if not better graphics. The main issue with console ports of games like Final Fantasy is usually that they don’t always create a new control scheme for stuff like inventory management, so you need to push a lot of buttons to go through sub-menus of sub-menus instead of using easier mouse + keyboard controls. That can be somewhat annoying, but is not really a serious downside. So I’d consider the PC version a conservative bet.

The mobile version, called the “pocket edition” is going to be released next week, February 9, and is conceptually much more interesting. Because in this pocket version they tried to reproduce the game as faithfully as possible on a platform which is both much less graphically powerful, and has a much more different control scheme. But people who saw the beta version were astounded how faithful to the original at least the start of the game is. Basically you see the same scenes, but with new graphics which are far better suited to the lower resolution and capabilities of the platform.

There have been a number of games in the past that were re-released with improved graphics, due to the constant increase of computer graphics quality. The reverse process, down-grading graphics to lower resolution, hasn’t been used that much. But of course the concept is very interesting if you think of porting games from the PC and console to tablets and phones. So I am definitely going to check out the Final Fantasy XV pocket edition. Especially since I don’t need to buy the full game to do so: You get the first chapter for free, and can buy the rest of the game chapter by chapter. Now that is an innovation I wish would apply to console games.

Elemental Evil: Sessions 17

In the previous session the group entered the Temple of Howling Hatred, trying to stop the prophets of elemental evil from summoning their princes. This session started with a long discussion on the merits of retreating to safety, which I tried to hurry along to stop wasting time. After resting the group returned to the Temple, where I had put 8 fresh Kenku at the gate. On the first run, played as written, the Kenku were just making noises to scare the adventurers; this time they use the defense mechanism of the gate house, firing at the group through arrow slits. Although the Kenku were rather low level, that occupied the group for quite a while.

Finally they made it back to the step pyramid where they were before. Inside they found a bunch of cultists and stairs up. After killing the cultists they went up the stairs and met the prophetess of elemental evil air, Aerisi Kalinoth. Despite being a level 12 spellcaster, the prophetess was a pushover. She relied on concentration spells like Fly or Cloudkill, and that just doesn’t work. The group just ignored her henchmen and broke her concentration immediately after she cast anything, making her not very effective. I find the 5th edition D&D spell system rather boring, as it really encourages you to use only instant damage spells, because anything a bit more interesting is based on concentration and has little effect. For example Cloudkill used to be a very powerful spell in previous editions, but now it affected only the first character starting his turn in the cloud, who then broke the concentration of Aerisi and dispelled the cloud before it damaged anybody else.

The bard who was with Aerisi was even weaker, also due to concentration spells, and so the only serious monster in the encounter was an invisible stalker, who had more health than the other two together, was much harder to damage, and didn’t use concentration spells. Having finally killed that one as well, the group found a lot of monetary treasure and Windvane, the magical spear of Aerisi. However I had had to nerf that one on the request of the future DM of our group, in whose campaign the original wouldn’t have fit. So now it was just a +2 lance that opened the magical portals to the temples of elemental evil. At that point we stopped the session.

JavaScript Interview Questions for Freshers


What is JavaScript, really ?

JavaScript (“JS” for short) is a full-fledged dynamic programming language that, when applied to an HTML document, can provide dynamic interactivity on websites. It was invented by Brendan Eich, co-founder of the Mozilla project, the Mozilla Foundation, and the Mozilla Corporation.

JavaScript is incredibly versatile. You can start small, with carousels, image galleries, fluctuating layouts, and responses to button clicks. With more experience, you’ll be able to create games, animated 2D and 3D graphics, comprehensive database-driven apps, and much more!

*For online documentation on JavaScript , refer the doc of creators – mdn

**For the best class-room training on JavaScript at Mumbai connect with Rocky Sir

Leaving out the very simple and basic Interview Questions, at what questions do the fresh web developers get stuck ?  Here is a list :

1. Before-the-first-Round-of-JavaScript-Interview-Questions

      download a short and sweet PDF


2. 10-common-JavaScript-interview-questions (Click on the Question for viewing the answer)


3. Step-by-step solution for step counting using recursion

step counting _sctpl

For example, if you wanted to climb 4 steps, you can take the following distinct number of steps:

1) 1, 1, 1, 1
2) 1, 1, 2
3) 1, 2, 1
4) 2, 1, 1
5) 2, 2
So there are 5 distinct ways to climb 4 steps. We want to write a function, using recursion, that will produce the answer for any number of steps
answer-to-step-counting-using-recursion

4. Determine overlapping numbers in ranges

You will be given an array with 5 numbers. The first 2 numbers represent a range, and the next two numbers represent another range. The final number in the array is X. The goal of your program is to determine if both ranges overlap by at least X numbers. For example, in the array [4, 10, 2, 6, 3] the ranges 4 to 10 and 2 to 6 overlap by at least 3 numbers (4, 5, 6), so your program should return true.
answer-to-determine-overlapping-numbers-in-ranges 



5. Find all duplicates in an array



This is a common interview question where you need to write a program to find all duplicates in an array. The elements in the array have no restrictions, but in this algorithm we’ll work specifically with integers. Finding duplicates in an array can be solved in linear time by using a hash table to store each element as we pass through the array. The general algorithm is: 


(1) Loop through the array
(2) At each element check if it exists in the hash table, which has a lookup of O(1) time
(3) If the element exists in the hash table then it is a duplicate, if it doesn’t exist, insert it into the hash table, also O(1)

for-complete-solution-to-finding-all-duplicates-in-an-array


6Two sum problem


The two sum problem is a common interview question, and it is a variation of the subset sum problem. There is a popular dynamic programming solution for the subset sum problem, but for the two sum problem we can actually write an algorithm that runs in O(n) time.

The challenge is to find all the pairs of two integers in an unsorted array that sum up to a given S. For example, if the array is [3, 5, 2, -4, 8, 11] and the sum is 7, your program should return [[11, -4], [2, 5]] because 11 + -4 = 7 and 2 + 5 = 7.

for-complete-solution-to-Two-sum-problem

7. Stock maximum profit

You will be given a list of stock prices for a given day and your goal is to return the maximum profit that could have been made by buying a stock at the given price and then selling the stock later on. For example if the input is: [45, 24, 35, 31, 40, 38, 11] then your program should return 16 because if you bought the stock at $24 and sold it at $40, a profit of $16 was made and this is the largest profit that could be made. If no profit could have been made, return -1.


for-complete-solution-to-Stock-maximum-profit


What does a DM need to know?

I recently offered a young player of D&D who was interested in becoming a Dungeon Master to give him some pointers on how to be a good DM. But while I have been a DM for nearly 4 decades now, it isn’t actually all that easy to describe what makes a good DM. In some ways it is more an art than a science. And where it is a science, it is a badly documented one.

The basic role of a DM is easily described: He sets the scene, asks the players what they do, and then reacts to their answer by telling them the consequences of their actions, thus setting the next scene. Rinse, lather, repeat. What makes the description of a good DM so complicated is that different people are good DMs in very different ways. You ask a player what he specifically liked with a DM, and realize that whatever that was, it was probably something optional. For example when I ask for feedback from various players in different groups of mine, I frequently get told that they appreciate my preparation of visual playing aids: Battlemaps, 3D printed miniatures, handouts. But you can play with another good DM who doesn’t use any of those! Another DM might be appreciated for his creation of fantastic worlds, but you can play great games without those as well. Some DMs are great play-actors doing accents and voices for NPCs, but you don’t need that either. So what is the stuff that is actually essential?

Dungeons & Dragons, and any other pen & paper role-playing game, inherently always exists on two different levels: Horgar the barbarian swings his battleaxe and with a satisfying crunch decapitates the evil wizard. John the player of Horgar declares that he wants to attack the evil wizard and rolls a 20 on his attack. Horgar and John need each other. Without John, Horgar doesn’t exist. Without Horgar, John isn’t playing D&D. I believe that an awareness of those two levels, and a constant effort to keep the two levels in balance with each other, might well be the most important part of a DM’s job. Concentrate too much on the story, and the players get bored because they don’t get to roll dice any more. Concentrate too much on the dice, and you end up playing a board game.

Corollary to that is the need for balance between DM actions and player actions. D&D is a game of interactive story-telling. Take the interaction away, and it becomes a lot less interesting. No DM’s hour-long monologue beats Netflix in entertainment value. But letting the players role-play alone without feedback on the consequences from the DM only leads to people becoming lost and confused. Players need “agency”, the ability to influence the story and the outcome of situations. But that agency only makes sense in the context of there being a story and a situation to overcome. The DM needs to make sure that he tells the players enough for them to understand what is going on, so they can act, but also to leave enough room for different choices and original ideas from the players.

That gets us to another important point: The “never say no” rule. It isn’t an absolute rule, because it applies only to constructive input from the players. But the idea is that as long as the player proposes something constructive, the DM should accept the proposal and try to work with it. You can still judge that the idea is very unlikely to work, and require the player to succeed in a very difficult roll. But that is still far better than letting the players propose lots of things and always saying no until by chance they come upon the one solution you previously decided was the good one. Saying yes can change the whole campaign to something you hadn’t imagined, but that is the beauty of it. The goal is not to have the story proceed on predetermined rails, but to have everyone at the table contribute to the story and together create something greater than one man’s story. In my Zeitgeist campaign the players were a group of policemen working for the king; but it was up to the players whether they wanted to play those policemen as the Keystone Cops or the Gestapo or something in between.

While these rules certainly don’t cover everything a DM needs to do or needs to be, I do think that they are among the most important for success. What other advice would you give a new DM to help him become a good DM?

8 Legitimate Grounds for Congress to Initiate Impeachment Proceedings Against Trump

Widespread corruption, abuse of power and a threat to our republic.

As we demonstrate in a new paper, The Legal Case for a Congressional Investigation on Whether to Impeach President Donald J. Trump, based on publicly reported information, as of today there are at least eight grounds for the House of Representatives to authorize the Judiciary Committee to begin hearings on whether to impeach President Donald J. Trump.

This paper presents a legal analysis based on the text, structure and history of the Constitution and federal law, and legal and political precedent, that we have developed in consultation with a wide range of experts over the past ten months. Some of the grounds for investigation are based on violations of specific enumerated constitutional or statutory provisions, but in keeping with the intent of the Founders and the 200-year history of impeachments, other grounds are based on abuses of power that do not fall easily within a specific proscription.

Here are the grounds for investigation.

1. Obstructing justice.

Beginning soon after the inauguration, the president engaged in a course of conduct that sought to obstruct justice in the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s investigations of Lieutenant General Michael Flynn and of his own campaign’s potential involvement with Russian activity in the 2016 election.

2. Violating the Foreign Emoluments Clause and Domestic Emoluments Clause of the U.S. Constitution.

Through his businesses in the United States and abroad, the president receives payments, regulatory approval, and other forms of direct and indirect financial benefits from foreign governments. These violate the Constitution’s Foreign Emoluments Clause, which prohibits federal officials, including the president, from receiving a “present” or “emolument” from any foreign government or official. The president’s businesses also act as a conduit for enrichment from federal and state government coffers. These violate the Domestic Emoluments Clause, which prohibits the president from receiving, beyond his official salary, any emolument from the United States or any state.

3. Conspiring with others to commit crimes against the United States involving the solicitation and intended receipt by his presidential campaign of things of value from a foreign government and other foreign nationals, and to conceal those violations.

In the 2016 election, the senior officials of Trump’s presidential campaign (including his campaign chairman, his son and his son-in-law) met with Russian nationals after an invitation to receive compromising information about his campaign opponent, Hillary Clinton, that they were told would be of great value to the campaign. Federal campaign finance law prohibits a candidate or campaign from soliciting a foreign national (including a foreign government) for a thing of value. In 2017, after this meeting was revealed, President Trump personally dictated a misleading public statement on behalf of his son about the intended purpose of the meeting.

4. Advocating illegal violence, giving aid and comfort to white supremacists and neo-Nazis, and undermining constitutional protections of equal protection under the law.

Over the course of 2017, the president has made a series of public statements that together, constitute a pattern of conduct violating his constitutional obligation to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed,” protect the citizenry against “domestic violence,” and ensure “the equal protection of the laws.”

5. Abusing the pardon power.

The president’s pardon of former Arizona sheriff Joseph Arpaio, who had been convicted of criminal contempt of court for willfully violating a court order to stop violating the constitutional rights of Latino drivers, abused the pardon power by sending the dangerous message that similarly inclined unscrupulous law enforcement officials could not only violate individual rights, but could violate court orders requiring them to stop violating those rights with impunity because the president would support them.

6. Threatening nuclear war against foreign nations, undermining and subverting the essential diplomatic functions and authority of federal agencies, including the Department of State, and engaging in other conduct that grossly and wantonly endangers the peace and security of the United States, its people and people of other nations, by heightening the risk of hostilities involving weapons of mass destruction, with reckless disregard for the risk of death and grievous bodily harm.

Through a series of public statements (including on Twitter), and beginning particularly in the late summer of 2017, the president has made increasingly reckless public threats against North Korea. It is not clear whether President Trump understands the ramifications of his actions. While the president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, reckless or wanton conduct with the potential for millions of deaths constitutes an abuse of power.

7. Directing or endeavoring to direct law enforcement, including the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to investigate and prosecute political adversaries and others, for improper purposes not justified by any lawful function of his office, thereby eroding the rule of law, undermining the independence of law enforcement from politics, and compromising the constitutional right to due process of law.

The president has repeatedly pressured federal law enforcement to investigate and prosecute political adversaries, including former campaign opponent Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party. The president’s attempts to employ the criminal investigative powers of the federal government against political opponents for purposes unrelated to national security, the enforcement of laws, or any other lawful function of his office are grounds for impeachment.

8. Undermining the freedom of the press.

The president has repeatedly attacked major U.S. news organizations as “fake news” and the “enemy of the American people.” The president is certainly free to criticize particular news stories he believes are inaccurate, and no one tweet in isolation constitutes an impeachable offense. But his consistent pattern of attacks undermines a critical foundation of a free society.

Purpose of Impeachment

Some of the impeachable offenses discussed in the paper overlap with the criminal investigation of special counsel Robert Mueller; some overlap with other pending federal litigation; others do not overlap with any parallel proceeding. However, as our paper explains, an impeachment investigation is entirely separate from a criminal or other judicial proceeding. The purpose of impeachment is not to punish for past crimes, but to remove from office a dangerous official who threatens the rule of law and the republic itself.

Congress must not use the Mueller investigation or other litigation as an excuse to shirk its duty to conduct its own independent impeachment hearings. The abuse of power, the corruption and the threat to our republic are here now.

 

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YoU are GeTTing HaCKed! -‘Cloak and Dagger Attack’


Android users may want to keep a close eye on the apps they download onto their devices as researchers have discovered a series of vulnerabilities in the operating system that relies on two particular Android permissions to work.

Dubbed Cloak & Dagger by the research team that discovered the vulnerability, the attack relies on abusing the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW and BIND_ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE permissions in order to compromise the system.
System vulnerabilities
The way the exploit works is pretty straightforward: a malicious app gets downloaded and installed to the Android device, with the necessary permissions being granted without requiring the user’s input.

From there, hackers are able to perform Clickjacking, record keystrokes, phishing, and even installing a God-mode app, all without the user being aware of it.
God-mode-app
Illustrate the danger that the vulnerability poses, the researchers have prepared three videos that demonstrates the potential attacks that could be carried out.

The first one is called the Invisible Grid Attack, and it works by placing an invisible overlay over the device’s keyboard. With it, the hacker could identify the information that is being typed out.
The second video depicts a clickjacking attempt that eventually culminates in a God-mode application being silently installed in the background without the user even noticing it.

Finally, the third video showcasing how a hacker could steal a password by manipulating the overlays.


Even newest Android version Android Nougat 7.1.2 might get affected due to this attack. So be aware of it.
As google is working on this problem, they will be coming with a solution pretty quickly. Stay safe!

Want  to learn Android Programming?

How abundance makes us poorer

Maybe it was to be expected with an offer that involves charity, but it turns out that for me the Humble Bundle Monthly is mostly an investment in a source for philosophical thoughts. When I initially bought the bundle in order to get Civ VI for cheap, I went for the three-month plan. So even if I since unsubscribed I just got my second months worth of games. And compared to the first month, there are even less games in there which I can see me playing. That is not to say that the offer is a bad one, or the games on offer are bad. Rather it reflects upon how my interests got narrower over time.

I am old enough to remember a time before video games. The first video game I played was Pong on a console that couldn’t play anything else, in black and white on a TV screen. When people got the first consoles with cartridges and computers, kids typically had just a handful of games, not necessarily chosen by themselves. If you only have 3 game cartridges, you will play the hell out of each of those games, whether those are your favorite games or not. Fast forward to 2017, where 7,672 games were released on Steam alone, again nearly doubling the number of Steam games available for a fourth year in a row.

Everybody has favorite games and favorite genres. If you are limited by the number of games available to you, you play what you got regardless of genre. If you have an abundance of choice, you get more and more picky and only play your favorite genres. The bottleneck becomes the amount of time available to play, so why should you play let’s say a platformer if you prefer role-playing games? Of course the consequence of that is that you end up with a much narrower experience. You only play a handful of favorite genres and don’t have the time for a bunch of other genres, which might offer a very different experience of gaming.

I see a parallel to the world of news and politics. Back in the day where your only source of news was one paper you and everybody in your street was subscribed to, you all got the same variety of news and opinions. Today there are so many sources of news and opinions that you can choose one which aligns well with your own opinions. If you are a fan of Trump, you watch Fox News and read Breitbart, if you are on the other side you watch CNN and read Huffington Post. But the result is that you end up in an echo chamber which doesn’t allow for a variety of opinions. This has gone so far that the echo chambers of today don’t even agree on the same set of facts. A news source that reports something uncomfortable to you is “fake news”, truth has become subservient to opinion.

The future is one in which we lead comfortable lives in which we play only our favorite games, see only our favorite genre of movies and TV shows, hear only news that please us. Until we have become so isolated from another group of people (which might well be our neighbors) that the two groups don’t consider each other of being of the same kind any more, and start killing each other off. The internet, which had a promise of offering us a much wider offer of everything from information to entertainment, ends up making us all poorer and more narrow-minded.

13 years old coding n0w !!

13 years old coding n0w !!

As the demand for fresh, new programmers is increasing in this techno competitive world, I being a 14 year old enthusiastic  kid thought of touching the field of programming for the first time. And I even got the thought at the right time (In my summer vacations!!).

Now, the first question was , from where to start?
  1. I had a laptop.✔
  2. I had net connection.✔
  3. I had a tool to code.✖

So, first thing I had to do was to download a tool to code which after doing from some research on the net was NOTEPAD++.

I knew that as the word ‘NOTEPAD’ appeared I had to type something on the screen. But what to write?
So, sadly I had to join a computer course in the busy city of Mumbai where everything is charged on the amount of time and not on quality.(But I was proved wrong!!)
FIRST DAY OF MY COURSE : I was introduced to languages like H.T.M.L , C.S.S ,Java script. The names were so complex even though I had selected the institute’s easiest course. I was sitting with college students(feeling very proud of myself!!).
H.T.M.L: The written matter in every website is coded with the help of this language.
C.S.S: The colors and some standard effects are given by this language.
Java script: Dynamic and moving effects are given to the matter with Java script.
I got these definations clear on the first day. The explanation was quite good but unexpected for me.
DAYS PASSED ON……
and I started coding these languages . It became clear to me that languages can not only be spoken but also coded.I learnt H.T.M.L and C.S.S quite easily but got some problems in learning Java script. Probably, it was more difficult than the other two.
But finally, I got it clear that kids can code but only some basic languages.Kids can even code the harder languages but then you would have to skip PHYSICS,MATHS,BIOLOGY etc. I couldn’t do that but surely my learning experience with SCTPL was very good.
WHAT IS THIS SCTPL: SCTPL is a software training  company in Mumbai. They teach QUALITY programming without making your pocket light.This institute changed my thinking towards the institutes in Mumbai. 
EVEN YOU MUST TRY IT!!  SCTPL

Do see what  Mark Zuckerberg, Bill Gates and …. many more .. have say

Working with Adobe After Effects


About :

Adobe After Effects is a software program that allows its users to create animation and other special effects for graphic-related projects. Graphic designers use it to provide their projects with layer-based animation. After Effects is part of the Adobe family of software and is compatible with other Adobe software.

Index

1. Creating a New Composition and Importing Files

2. Building a Composition with Layers

3. Adding Animations, Effects, and Preset

4. Previewing and Rendering Your Composition 



1. Creating a New Composition and Importing Files



I. Make and set up a new composition. 

Projects in Adobe After Effects are called compositions, or comps. At the Welcome screen, locate and click on the “New Composition” button in the right column. If you already have the program open, you may either click on the “Composition” tab and select “New Composition” or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+N. Every time you create a new composition, a “Composition Settings” window will appear on your screen.

  1. Locate “Preset” and click on the drop-down menu. The menu is divided up into four sections, respectively: web settings, standard definition broadcast settings (NTSC and PAL), HD settings (the most commonly used), and film settings. Select the top HD preset: “HDV/HDTV 720 29.97.” This selection with automatically set the width, height, and frame rate.
  2. In the second row, locate “Start Timecode” and “Duration.” Leave the “Start Timecode” at 0. “Duration” refers to the total length of the project, from start to end. Set the “Duration” to the required length for your composition.
II. Save your composition. 

Before you begin to work on the composition, you should always name and save the project. Click on the “File” tab at the top of the screen. When you select “Save,” a “Save As” window will appear. 
At the top of the window, type in the name of your composition. Select a location to save this file to and click the “Save” button at the bottom of the screen. The saved composition will appear in the “Project” tab to the left of the screen.
While you may save this file in any location, it is recommended that you save your composition near your “Footage” file. This file is located within the “Exercise Files” folder.

III. Import files into Adobe After Effects. 

In order to create a composition, you need material to manipulate and animate. 
Select File>Import>File or double click on the “Project” tab. Select all of the files you wish to import and hit “Open.” The imported files will appear in the “Project” tab.
 Alternative methods include:

  • Double click anywhere on the “Project” tab.
  • Strike “Command + I.”
  • Drag images directly into the “Project” tab.



2. Building a Composition with Layers


I. Add files to your composition. 

A composition is a composite graphic, or a composite of layers. Each individual layer of your composition is made up of a file. All of the layers combined form a composite graphic. There are several ways to add a file to your composition.

You may drag and drop files from the “Project” tab into the “Timeline” tab (located at the bottom right of the window), the “Composition” window (located to the right of the “Project” tab), or the “Layer” tab (located directly below the “Project” tab.)

II. Organize and edit the layers. 



Once the files appear in the “Layer” tab, you may begin to manipulate the files. From this tab, you may alter the order of the files and edit the appearance of a file.
To adjust the hierarchy of the layers, drag a file up or down the list. The order of the files will alter the appearance of the composition (see the “Composition” window.) Files at the top of the layer list will appear over files at the bottom of the layer list.

To alter the appearance of a file, click on the sideways triangle next to the layer’s number. This will open up a “Transform” menu. From this menu, you may alter the following properties: anchor point, position, scale, rotation, and/or opacity.

III. Generate a timeline for your composite graphic. 



The “Timeline” function allows you to animate the graphic—it controls when each layer is or is not visible. The “Timeline” is located to the right of the “Layer” list. Each layer has it own life bar within the timeline, which you can trim, extend, or group with other layers as desired.

IV. Trim your layers.



Select a layer from the list. Move your cursor over the line dividing the list and the timeline so that a double arrow appears. Click and drag the double arrow across the timeline to produce a translucent grey box (this indicates that a clip is trimmed.) Stop once you reach the moment you would like the layer to appear.


The red line with the Blue tab indicates your current time known as play head. You can use this line to help you automatically trim layers. Select the layer you wish to trim. Drag the red line to your desired starting or ending point for the layer. Strike  ”
Command + [ ” to automatically trim a layer to the right of the red line, strike ” Command ] “.


V.Transform your 2D layers. 



When you work within the “Composition” window, you may manually position, or transform, the layers. Select a layer from the list. Move your cursor over the “Composition” window and zoom, or scroll, out. A set of handles will appear around the composition. This indicates the the layer may be transformed, or positioned.
  1. To shrink or expand the layer, click on the handle, press ⇧ Shift, and drag your cursor towards the inside or outside of the window.
  2. To rotate an element, press Ctrl+W. This will activate the rotation tool.
  3. To move a layer on a 2-D plane, click on the element you want to move and drag it to its new position.

VI. Create 3D layers. 




To create a 3D layer, return to the “Layer” tab. The column directly under this icon controls the 3D settings for each layer. To activate this feature, check the layer’s blank space in this column. Return to the “Composition” window—if you activated the 3D property, a Y, X, and Z handle will appear on the layer’s anchor.

VII. Transform your 3D layers. 




To move a 3D layer, press CTRL+W to activate the rotation tool. Hover your cursor over the X or the Y axis. Click on the axis and drag your cursor to the left and right or up and down. The Z axis should always remain at “0.”

VIII. Apply the parent function to your layers. 



The parent function allows you to tie your layers together. One layer, the parent, will drive the actions of another layer, the child. The child layer, can still move independently of the parent.

  • Select the child layer (the layer that you want to apply the keyframes to)—this layer will become the child.
  • Locate the “Parent” category in the layer tab.
  • In the “Parent” column for this layer, locate the curly-q shaped icon in the child’s row. Click on the icon and draw a black line from the icon to the “Layer Name” section of parent. Through this process, the child will become tied to the parent.


3. Adding Animations, Effects, and Presets

I. Set up keyframes. 


Keyframes mark exact points in time when changes are to occur to a layer’s properties. This function, which is represented by a little stopwatch, allows you to animate your composite graphics.

  1. Move your red “Current Time Indicator” line to the moment at which you would like to activate a keyframe.
  2. Select a layer from the “List” tab.
  3. Expand the layer’s “Transform” or “Contents” tab.
  4. Click on the stopwatch icon next to the property you wish to alter. This will record a keyframe at the current time indicator. A yellow dot or a greater than/less than symbols will appear on the timeline to mark the keyframe.
  5. To see your keyframes on the timeline, lasso the layers you wish to view and press “U.”
  6. To move a keyframe, select a keyframe symbol on the timeline by lassoing it and then drag it to its new location. You may also copy and paste keyframes.

II. Animate keyframes. 



Keyframes allow you to animate your project. You may alter any of the properties listed under the “Transform” or “Contents” tab. There are two basic forms of animation: with ease or linear. If a layer in animated with ease, the layer will ease into and out of the motion. If a layer is linearly animated, the layer will start and stop moving abruptly and it will also move at the same rate the entire time. Altering a layer’s position is an example of linear animation.

  1. Click on the stopwatch next to “Position.”
  2. Move the red line to the point at which you would like the layer to be off the screen.
  3. Click on the layer’s anchor point.
  4. Hold down “Shift” as you drag the layer completely off of the screen. The motion path will appear as a purple dotted line and each related keyframe will appear as a purple square. To preview your animation, scrub the red line over the timeline.

III. Include effects and presets. 


Click on “Window” and “Effects and Presets.” You will see a list of various animations and effects that are available for application to your project. Simply drag and drop the effect or animation selection onto the layer to which you’d like to apply it. You should see the change immediately.

  • Effects include 3D, color correction, and various camera views.
  • Transition options include wipe, fade and checkerboard.
  • You may remove selections by dragging them off your projects.


4. Previewing and Rendering Your Composition


I. Preview your project. 

Select “Windows.” From here, click on “Time Controls.” A preview pane will pop up where you can select “Play” to see a rough draft of your project. If you wish to see a more finished version, click on “Ram Render Play.” If your project is especially long or requires a large amount of memory, adjust the resolution before you preview it. After clicking to play it, the video will run continually until you click on the screen to stop it.

II. Export your composition to Render Queue. 



If you need to produce and deliver a high-quality composition, export your project to the Render Queue. The Render Queue is built into Adobe After Effects.
Click on “File” at the top of the window. Select “Export” followed by “Add to Render Queue.” Instead of “File,” you may click on “Composition” and select “Add to Render Queue.”
In your Render Queue, locate “Output Module” and click on the linked text to the left of this section. A dialogue box will appear on your screen. From this screen, you can change the video and audio output settings. Click “Ok” when finished.

In your Render Queue, locate “Output To” and click on the linked text next to the left of this section. Another dialogue box will appear on your screen. The screen you prompt you to select a location to save your rendered composition. Click “Ok” when done.
Click on “Render” to export the composition.









III. Export your composition to Adobe Media Encoder. 


The Adobe Media Encoder will produce a compressed version of your composition. The Media Encoder will also export files that are compatible with specific web platforms. While your project is rendering in the Media Encoder, you may continue to work in Adobe After Effects.
Click on “File” at the top of the window. Select “Export” followed by “Add to Adobe Media Encoder Queue.” You may also select “Composition” followed by “Add to Adobe Media Encoder Queue” or drag the file directly into the “Adobe Media Encoder Queue” tab.
Locate the “Preset Browser.” Select the format for your composition. Drag this preset from the browser onto the file in the “Adobe Media Encoder Queue.”
In the queue, locate “Output To” and click on the linked text next to the left of this section. A dialogue box will appear on your screen and prompt you to select a location to save your rendered composition. Click “Ok” when done.
Click on the green play button to begin the export.

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SoMe-Things YoU sHould knOw about “PhoneGap”: Android – LeaVe my baThRoom at-least !

PhoneGap Framework

phonegap

Building applications for each platform–iPhone, Android, Windows and more–requires different frameworks and languages. PhoneGap solves this by using standards-based web technologies to bridge web applications and mobile devices. Since PhoneGap apps are standards compliant, they’re future-proofed to work with browsers as they evolve.


The PhoneGap framework was contributed by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under the name Apache Cordova and graduated to top-level project status in October 2012. Through the ASF, future PhoneGap development will ensure open stewardship of the project. It will always remain free and open source under the Apache License, Version 2.0.
To develop apps using Phonegap, the developer does not require top have knowledge of mobile programming language but should know languages like, HTML, CSS, JScript.
PhoneGap takes care of rest of the work, such as look and feel of the app and portability among various mobile operating systems and also allows its users to upload the data contents on website and it automatically converts it to various App files.

PhoneGap Environment Setup

Lets see how to setup basic PhoneGap Environment to develop apps easily. PhoneGap supports offline creation of apps using Cordova command line interface and Github, but we concentrate on online creation of apps. As PhoneGap supports only HTML, CSS and JavaScript, it is mandatory that the application should be created using these technologies only. 
An application package must contain following files:
  • Configuration File
  • Icons for App
  • Content (built using web technologies)
Configuration File
App require one configuration file named as “config.xml” that configure all its necessary settings. This file contains all the necessary information required to compile the app.
following is the content of config.xml file
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<widget xmlns = "http://www.w3.org/ns/widgets"
xmlns:gap = "http://phonegap.com/ns/1.0"
id = "com.phonegap.example"
versionCode = "10"
version = "1.0.0" >

<!-- versionCode is optional and Android only -->

<name>PhoneGap Example</name>

<description>
An example for phonegap build docs.
</description>

<author href="https://build.phonegap.com" email="[email protected]">
Hardeep Shoker
</author>

</widget>
The widget element must be the root of your XML document.When using PhoneGap Build, ensure you have the following attributes set on your widget element.
id – The unique identifier for your application. To support all supported platforms, this must be reverse-domain name style (e.g. com.yourcompany.yourapp)
version –  for best results, use a major/minor/patch style version, with three numbers, such as 0.0.1
versionCode – (optional) when building for Android, you can set the versionCode by specifying it in your config.xml.
<name> – The name of the application.
<description> – A description for your application.
<author> – The author of the application, either a company or individual (required for Windows 10 builds).
<platform> – You can have zero or more of these elements present in your config.xml. Set the name attribute to one of ios, android, or windows.If you specify none, all platforms will be built.
Icons
It is important to prepare icons of exact shapes and sizes as required by particular mobile operating system. Here we are using the folders res/icon/ios and res/icon/android/drawable-xxxx..To get this work done fast, you can create a logo of size 1024×1024 and log on to makeappicon.com. This website will help you instantly create logos of all sizes for both android and iOS platform.

PhoneGap App Contents

We can create two type of apps. Online app and Offline App. Following is the directory structure for the applications.
Online App
In online app entire information content is loaded from the Internet.
Online app directory structure
The index.html file contains actual links as it contains at the web server and all its links are either absolute or used with base href tag.
Offline App
Offline app will let you create a web application that is downloaded to its entirety to the mobile devices of a user who can access that offline.
offline app directory structure
The config.xml contains app configuration settings. The index.html file contains homepage of web contents. All the HTML files should contain only relative path not absolute path or base href tag.
Once selected your app type, organize files in above mentioned structure and zip it using any standard tool zip tool.

Sign Your App

Android requires that all APKs be digitally signed with a certificate before they can be installed. For this reason, you need to sign your app. You may need keytool which is a part of standard java distribution.Execute the following command in %JAVA_HOME% in your Windows command prompt or Linux Shell:-

keytool -genkey -v -keystore my_keystore.keystore 
   -alias TutorialsPoint -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000

It should generate one file.

PhoneGap App Compilation

Now we are ready to compile our first web API-based app. PhoneGap accepts user login created on GitHub or using AdobeID. GitHub is a online repository service where users can upload their contents and use them by providing their URL references.
Following steps are required to create Adobe Id and Compile the application.
Create Adobe ID
Got to https://build.phonegap.com/ and register after that login to your account it will display PhoneGap Console as shown in below
phonegap console

Click on ‘Upload a .zip file’ and upload the .zip file we created, which has the entire web content and configurations. You should see the following window after successful upload

Click on the Android icon and the following screen should appear


Click on drop-down option menu next to Android icon that reads No key selected, click on add a key and the following screen should appear
Provide the file created while signing the App. Then click on ‘Rebuild’ button next to it. The app built by this process can be directly uploaded to Google Play. Click on .apk file and you can download your first web-based free app.Before uploading, app should be tested on either virtual or real devices.

sign file submit form

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